IN the Ancient Orient, all religion was more or less a mystery and there was no divorce from it of philosophy. The popular theology, taking the multitude of allegories and symbols for realities, degenerated into a worship of the celestial luminaries, of imaginary Deities with human feelings, passions, appetites, and lusts, of idols, stones, animals, reptiles. The Onion was sacred to the Egyptians, because its different layers were a symbol of the concentric heavenly spheres.
Napoleon as a Military Commander: Napoleon was one of the greatest military minds in the history of warfare. He expanded the conquests of France from her revolutionary borders to that of an Empire that stretched from Spain to the steppes of Russia.
Napoleon's genius lay not in revolutionizing of warfare itself, but in the refinement of existing means. He did not propose any drastic changes in tactics nor invent a new method of waging warfare, instead he excelled at the tactical handling of the armies of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
Napoleon established himself as a great leader of men during the revolutionary period with the siege of Toulon and his triumphs in Italy in These talents were refined and reached their height during the battles of Ulm, Austerlitz and Jena in the period of Towards the end of the Empire the weaknesses of Napoleon as a military commander became more evident.
His insistence on the micro management of the army and the awarding of Marshal batons to those who excelled under his leadership, but who possessed no great talent for individual command, worked to his determent.
The strategic failures of the decisions to invade Spain and Russia and the inability to keep the other major European powers divided proved disastrous. The increasing size and static nature of armies and the increasingly murderous nature of warfare during the latter part of the Empire revealed Napoleon's in ability to adapt to the changing shape of war.
It is in the light of his triumphs and later failures that Napoleon's traditional reputation as a great military leader must be judged. Historiographical interpretations of Napoleon's military abilities have under gone several changes. In his epic work The Campaigns of Napoleon David Chandler accurately portrays how the "wheel has turned full cycle several times" as to the impressions of Napoleon's abilities.
He had been regarded from at best a "talented thug", to a military genius. Another contemporary historian Owen Connelly argues in Blundering to Glory, despite his more negative attitude to Napoleon, that he was "probably the greatest commander of all time", but again he emphasized that this genius must be placed in context and Connolly's admiration is certainly not biased.
Geoffrey Ellis in The Napoleonic Empire, agrees with Connolly and his argument that Napoleon's successes held a certain makeshift quality and herein lay his talent and genius. Russell Weigley argues a slightly different point in The Age of Battles.
Weigley is concerned generally with the obsession of the European powers in gaining the destruction of the enemy's army in a single climatic battle. Weigley regards Napoleon as the most proficient strategist since Gustavus Adolphus in achieving this masterstroke and the battle of Austerlitz as its crowning achievement during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic epochs.
Weigley argues that the result of the Battle of Austerlitz and the destruction of the Austro-Russian army was the worship of battle among European soldiers as the means to annihilation. Weigley regards that despite this belief among European soldiers and statesman the period after and Austerlitz was dominated by the change from the battle of annihilation to the battle of attrition.initiativeblog.com The Romance of Steel A History of the Steel Industry by Herbert Newton Casson THE BIRTH OF THE BESSEMER PROCESS.
On that bleak November day when Andrew Carnegie was born in a Scottish cottage, the iron and steel makers of America had no more thought of millions than of castles in Spain.
Steel sold for twenty . Feb 08, · to anyone researching for an essay on napoleon, approach with caution. this essay was written for a high school history class and the level of research and writing is indicative of this fact.
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John Adams, The Works of John Adams, vol. 10 (Letters , Indexes) . p. II. THE FELLOW-CRAFT. IN the Ancient Orient, all religion was more or less a mystery and there was no divorce from it of philosophy. The popular theology, taking the multitude of allegories and symbols for realities, degenerated into a worship of the celestial luminaries, of imaginary Deities with human feelings, passions, appetites, and .