Greek lithograph of the Battle of Kilkis—Lachanas Through the spring ofa series of bilateral agreements between the Christian Balkan states Greece, BulgariaMontenegro and Serbia formed the Balkan Leaguewhich in October declared war on the Ottoman Empire. In the First Balkan Warthe Ottomans were defeated on all fronts, and the four allies rushed to grab as much territory as they could. The Treaty of London ended the war, but no one was left satisfied, and soon, the four allies fell out over the partition of Macedonia.
The countries at the top of the table either have high levels of union membership, as in the Nordic countries, or have legal structures which ensure that collective agreements have a wide coverage. In the countries at the bottom of the table, company level bargaining dominates.
In some countries, The emergence of it governance in greece as Belgium, Italy or Sweden, there are links between different levels of bargaining but in others, like Luxembourg or Cyprus, various levels simply coexist.
Overall the trend seems to be towards greater decentralisation and the crisis has accelerated this.
Collective bargaining coverage One indicator of the importance of collective bargaining is the proportion of employees affected by it — its coverage. In most cases this reflects the specific legal framework for collective bargaining in the individual countries.
The figures should therefore be treated with caution. There are three countries — Sweden, Finland and Denmark — where high collective bargaining coverage goes with high union density.
In the second group — Austria, Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Portugal — the current high levels of collective bargaining coverage reflect, at least in part, the legal framework in which collective bargaining takes place. In Belgium, coverage is high because agreements signed at industry level automatically extend to all those employed in that industry.
In Italy there is no legislation which makes industry level agreements generally binding but courts have normally interpreted them in this way.
In France too, the extension of agreements by the government to non-signatory employers, combined with the legal obligation on employers to negotiate annually at company and in some circumstances at industry level provide a high level of coverage.
However, the case of France indicates why the figures need to be treated with care. Although collective bargaining coverage is extremely high, some agreements have rates which are below the level of the French national minimum wage and are therefore invalid.
Individualised pay increases, which are not negotiated, also play an important role in setting the pay of many French workers. In Portugal, the situation is changing as a result of the financial crisis.
In the past, the government frequently extended agreements to employers who were not signatories. However, this has now been greatly limited, and combined with other changes, it seems likely that coverage will fall in the future.
In the countries at the bottom half of table, it is bargaining at company level that predominates. Almost by definition, company level bargaining depends on union activity at company level and is therefore more closely related to levels of union density.
Three countries have seen major falls in the coverage of collective bargaining in recent years, and in each case they result from legislative changes to the bargaining structure. In Portugal and Spain, there have been concerns that similar changes to those in Greece and Romania could lead to a comparable fall in coverage.
However, as yet, the latest figures for overall coverage do not show the dramatic drop that was feared.
In Portugal, with many fewer employees being covered by new agreements, and the latest changes only coming into effect in Septemberit may be that the changes in collective bargaining arrangement have still to work through. In Spain, the long delay before full figures become available makes it difficult to judge what is happening, but there is some strong evidence that ina year after the major legislative changes, the vast majority of companies continued to be covered by collective bargaining.
The level of collective bargaining H However, collective bargaining coverage is by no means the whole story.
The level at which bargaining takes place and the way different levels interact is also crucial. The details of each country are set out in the individual country sections, but it is worth pointing to some of the variants on offer.
There are some countries where national level agreements set a framework for negotiators at lower levels to follow. This is clearly the case in Belgium, where a national agreement every two years sets pay increases, which are then applied in settlements at both industry and company negotiations, although in recent years the system has come under strain.
On several occasions unions and employers have been unable to agree a national framework, leaving the government to impose the pay increases to be applied. In Norway there is a clear hierarchy of negotiations, from confederation to individual unions to company level, although the confederations do not always take the lead.
In Spain, there has been a national agreement setting pay guidelines, covering ever year but one since The Spanish guidelines are voluntary, but they clearly have an impact on negotiations at industry and company level.
In Finland, the pattern of national framework agreements appears to have returned despite its apparent demise inwhen the employers refused to negotiate a new national agreement. Inin the light of the economic crisis, the employers changed tack and signed a national framework agreement, and another national framework agreement was reached in However, in Ireland the system of national agreements which set pay increases, among other things, for more than 20 years, effectively broke down in under the pressure of the economic crisis.
Pay and conditions are now set at company level in the private sector, although the public sector — where pay is frozen — is covered by a national deal. In other countries, it is industry-level negotiations that set pay and conditions for the vast majority of employees covered by bargaining.
This is the position in Austria, in Germany, in Portugal and in Slovenia although all but Austria also have some company agreements. The position in Italy is slightly different.Corporate governance actions: voluntary codes and regulatory reforms A number of financial scandals and corporate failures in the s in the US and the UK boosted the debate on how best to make managers accountable to shareholders.
Athenian democracy has had many critics, both ancient and modern. Ancient Greek critics of the democracy include Thucydides the general and historian, Aristophanes the playwright, Plato the pupil of Socrates, Aristotle the pupil of Plato, and a writer known as the Old Oligarch.
Modern critics are more likely to find fault with the narrow definition of the citizen body, but in the ancient world the complaint, if .
Building off contributions such as the WDR – the purpose of this conference is to better under the ‘state of disruption’ that is facing public sector institutions across the world & further the agenda on how ‘success’ in governance reform can be measured.
Good corporate governance is not an end in itself. It is a means to support economic efficiency, sustainable growth and financial stability.
It facilitates companies' access to capital for long-term investment and helps ensure that shareholders and other stakeholders who contribute to the success of. Ancient Greek Government. Definition. by Mark Cartwright published on 20 March Listen to this article, narrated by James Lloyd.
The government systems of ancient Greece were varied as the Greeks searched for the answers to such. The emergence of IT Governance The cases of Enron, Worldcom and other corporate and financial scandals in the early years of the century have raised the significance of .